When a charged particle accelerates it gives off electromagnetic radiation. By the inverse when a n electromagnetic wave hits a charged particle it causes it to accelerate. This is the way radio communication works. An electronic signal emulating a sound wave causes electrons to accelerate up and down the antenna. As the electrons accelerate they give off radio waves which carry the same signal as the electronics that caused them. This means that another antenna in the same plane will have its electrons accelerate and generate the analogous signal once again. Now the same idea is going to be applied to other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
By putting microscale gold antennas on vanadium dixide (VO2) films, it as found that it was easier to pump the vanadium dioxide the stimulate its electrons. This was to be expected as the visible and ultra violet light could be more focused and less likely to go into a heating effect. What was very interesting was the amount of control over the change of properties inside the VO2. It was possible the rapidly switch between metal and insulator qualities and lock the material in its conducting state for a time before manually returning it to normal. This could all be done at a lower energy range with greater precision as specific parts of the vanadium film could be excited without any background response from the bulk. All this could be done and this is still only a crude layering method for the antenna. Embedding the receivers in the vanadium dioxide crystal or growing the matrix around the antennas have the possibility for improving these results even more and opening up even more precise control over these materials in optoelectronic circuits.