There has been some big news this week regarding theoretical and particle physics. A new idea has been presented called the SMASH model that claims to solve reportedly five (but technically four) of the biggest standing problems in modern physics. In increases the standard model show below, to include three new neutrinos and two new particles called the axion (predicted at ten billion times lighter than the electron) and the inflaton that are both contained in one field.
The three neutrinos explain how neutrino oscillations occur and also assist with explaining baryogenesis, the excess of real baryons over anti baryons. The axion is the particle responsible for the missing mass often known as dark matter and the inflaton is behind accelerating expansion also known as dark energy. On a complete divergence there is also talk from a paper that in fact the universe may not be undergoing accelerating expansion and this idea could have been wrong since the start. If any more on this idea comes up I will be certain to talk about it but back to the particles. The field explains what is called the charge parity problem where particles and their antiparticles can behave slightly differently (demonstrated with kaons alternating between particle and antiparticle but with a probability bias for one direction). This is inherently linked with baryogenesis and so I would choose to see them as one problem personally. This theory should hopefully be tested in the next ten years but until then these ideas will just have to be sent to the realm of string theory and alternate universes.
Until tomorrow, goodnight.