Chondrites are meteorites that are composed almost completely of rock, rather than metal. To be more specific a chondrite requires a large percentage of its volume to be made of chondrules, round grains made of nonmetallic minerals a few millimetres in diameter which are then completely surrounded and bound by a matrix of grains only a few micrometres in diameter. The abundance of elements within chondrites is very similar to the abundance ratios in the atmosphere of the sun. This leads to the conclusion that the asteroids were formed from the collecting of dust particles in the early solar system, before any of the planets had had a chance to form.
Interferometry is a method of investigation where waves, normally electromagnetic radiation, are superimposed to gather information about the path the waves took. If a coherent wave is spit into two perpendicular directions then reflected and brought back together they will constructively interfere if the paths they took were the same and destructively interfere if the paths they took were half a wavelength out. It was this process that allowed us to both disprove the aether argument of electrodynamics and show that gravitational waves existed (as in both cases the existence of these effects would lead to a distortion of a laser passing through space).
The reader may be aware that it is possible for blind individuals to use echolocation to visualise their surroundings. In a very similar way to a bat or dolphin these people can use the reflected sound waves off objects to determine there size and location. Of course, this seems like such an amazing ability, that certainly some people would want to try it out. However people who can see will find such a feat, not just difficult, but impossible. To be able to transform information from your ears into an image in the head requires the use of section of the brain normally reserved for manipulating data from the eyes. Blind people don’t need this part of the brain to gather data from their eyes and so with enough practice it can be adapted into the necessary network to visualise sounds.
The tale of Galileo and the treatment his theories received is a very famous one. However the story has become slightly distorted over the centuries and the the truth is a bit different from the common telling. Back in the 1600s religion and science were inseparable concepts. The fact it was called natural philosophy should be enough of a hint to that. But the idea that the catholic church at the time opposed any scientific idea is quite absurd. Off the top of my head I cannot think of any culture in history that has actively attempted hamper scientific research, except for perhaps the intellectual slaughter of the French revolution. But although the church supported the scientific pursuit in a way of “gaining an understanding of God” there was always the tinge of the fanatical with religious scripture being presented as evidence. But in Galileo’s case it wasn’t the church that used such arguments, at least not at first. Galileo’s observations of Venus had led him to the conclusion that the Earth went round the Sun. To describe this as his theory though would be highly inaccurate; the ancient Greeks had pondered a similar idea. Aristotle had pointed out that the stars should appear to move based on parallax went around the Sun, and this evidence still stood. With Galileo unable to refute this evidence he used passages of the Bible to counter some critics. Quite soon some members of the church had started to use similar evidence back relying on scripture to disprove Galileo’s more advanced claims, these philosphers were described as “not want[ing] to look at either the planets, the moon or the telescope, even though I have freely and deliberately offered them the opportunity a thousand times” by Galileo. Quite soon, with emotions running high, Galileo was accuse of heresy both of theological and scientific nature. There is no denying that close minded doctrinal beliefs were what led to this result, but stories rarely have only perspective to be told from, and I would like to think my view is the most accurate.
Until tomorrow, goodnight.
Due to resonant electrons in metals surfaces, nanoparticles of noble metals are able to absorb a large proportion of incoming light. For gold and silver nanoparticles the resonant frequency, and therefore the frequency where the absorption takes place, is located squarely in the visible spectrum making them the target or various research projects. The other main effect of metal nanoparticles is the increased electric field strength near the particles surface. For photoluminescent dyes, these electric fields have been shown to either severely mitigate or greatly enhance the dyes effects.
In recent years there have been various papers published on the topic of cell and biological tissue stiffness. When in comes to blood pressure, hypertension, asthma and ageing the mechanical elastic properties of the cells involved often change as these diseases develop. For instance if a person is genetically predisposed towards having thicker and stiffer vascular wall tissue it is no surprise that this person has a greater chance of developing a cardiovascular illness.
Cloud droplets and ice crystals; water in rocks and in oil fields; liquids in the body and in biological processes, these are all examples of water existing, completely encapsulated, in a hydrophobic environment. To be able to understand and predict the activity of the water droplets it is essential to know the dynamics of the water to hydrophobic interface on the nano and micro length scales. Understanding the reactivity of water suspended in air is quite an important thing to know in atmospheric science but up to this point the properties of the surfaces on a molecular level have been predicted by looking at macroscopic interface which is quite a poor indicator. There is another method that involves dissolving the hydrophobic molecules into an aqueous environment but the conditions differ wildly in chemistry and size to the droplet surfaces presented in nature.