In classical physics it is a simple fact that if you knew enough information nothing could be beyond prediction. If quantum physics was to be ignored someone could have calculated the entire universe provided they knew every detail of the big bang. When companies make predictions they are not of this kind. You will probably heard the practically vapid phrase that “correlation does not equal causation” but the simple fact is that correlation is the only thing required. If 90% of people who buy pens online also buy paper later, who cares if its causation. Advertisements will appear for various notepads because it is statically likely the pen buyer will soon be looking for one. In a similar way it is estimated that some life insurance companies have so much information that they can predict the date of someone’s death (based on neighbourhood, average income, previous family medical records, ect) to within a year.
When a system’s particles interact under a repulsive inverse power law, it means that particles will repel each other and the force with which one particle experiences from another can be stated generally as:
F = k / rn
where F is the force exerted on the particle, k is a constant, r is the distance between the two two particles and n is the order of the interaction.
The Living With a Star (LSW) program is a project by NASA with the goal of understanding why the Sun varies over time and how this effects the Earth, more specifically, how it effects human life on Earth rather than just general geoastrophysics. The scientific portion of the project began on the 11th of February, 2010, when the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched into a geosynchronous orbit. This spacecraft was given the task of taking incredibly detailed readings from the Sun in regards to its magnetic field, corona and solar radiance. To perform this task three separate modules were integrated onto the satellite: The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI); the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE); and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Luckily it is the just the final one that we need to concern ourselves with today. The AIA unit is most similar to traditional photography being able to take pictures containing the whole Sun in eight different ultraviolet wavelengths and with very high resolutions (4096×4096).
In mathematics there are many problems that seem almost ridiculously pointless and it makes you wonder why such things are of any interest at all. An example would be the concept of vertex colouring of graphs. This is simply taking a graph and “colouring” each node so that no two nodes of the same colour have an arc connecting them. Generally the aim is to minimise the number of colours required by reusing colours whenever possible. Of course this exercise has applications for computer programming and scheduling algorithms and so, as always, even the most useless looking maths comes to a purpose somewhere.
Nonvolatile memory is the memory normally used as the backup on a computer. Most people will have heard of random access memory (RAM) which is considered volatile because if the computer is shut down all the tiny capacitors (as this is what the memory chip is made from) discharge and so the information stored as RAM is lost. Nonvolatile memory persists even after the computer has been switched off and on again and in its most basic form is literally printing out the information in a format that can be easily reinserted. Magnetic tape is probably the most famous of this type of memory.
Computers are ultimately not very intelligent things. They can only really do what they are told to do and this also means they see what they get told to see. This is why there is always the danger of someone simply setting up their laptop on a public network, that doesn’t have proper security, and having their laptop announce “I am a router.” Computers will simply believe this statement and so will start sending information to this laptop which can copy any data before sending it on its way. This is why entity identification is such an important part of cryptography, making sure it is certainly the individual you think it is.
Today’s news leads on very well from yesterday’s as it is likewise looking at the physics of secondary low energy electrons, very specifically the effect of these electrons on water, the main components of most cells. Despite the electrons being relatively low energy, with most not surpassing about 10 eV, some acute damage can still be done and it was found about a decade ago that the damage DNA receives does not necessarily scale with energy of the damaging electrons. In order to understand the exact interaction of electrons with the water in cells many experiments have been carried out to attempt to understand the process of the electrons transferring energy. This study aims to improve on this kind of work by offering a more advanced and specialised model for the water that makes it act in a much more similar way the liquid found in cells. Details about the electron configuration along with bonding and antibonding electrons were imputed. The phonons within the water were only given one standing wave state which represents the limited environments the water would be in within a cell.