The most famous equation of perhaps the entirety of physics history: E = mc^{2}. The simple statement that energy is inherently connected to mass. There are many caveats and extensions that can be understood but the basics is just that. A particle will have an energy that is stored partly as mass and partly as kinetic energy. In nuclear reactions we have discovered processes which ultimately lose some amount of mass, this is converted into energy with explosive potential (as the equation tells us that every kilogram of mass will provide c^{2} Joule worth of energy). The process can also work in reverse. Provide a photon with enough energy and it could very well produce mass in the form of an electron and a positron most commonly.

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